he First lighthouse of the world
The lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos of Alexandria) was built in the early 3-rd century BC by the ruler Ptolemy I, an ex-general of Alexander Macedonian, the conqueror who founded and gave the name to Alexandria. City was founded at strategically important place in Egypt, at the Mediterranean sea on a small island of Pharos. Soon the building acquired that name, and in many European languages lighthouse is called ,,pharo”. In ancient times mariners were guided by bonfires built on hilltops, but economic and scientific development and strategic location of the city provoked Ptolemy to build the construction which would be the marvelous sightseeing and guide for sailors into port. The lighthouse at Alexandria was approximately 135 m. It consisted of three parts. Designer was Greek architect Sostratus of Cnidus. The construction was made of stone and white marble . It took 12 years to complete and cost 800 talents in today’s money it would cost about three million dollars to build. The lighthouse stood in three levels: a lower square level with strong core to provide support (60 m), an octagon-shape center level (40 m) , and a circular level on top, where was a fire surrounded by reflective mirror possibly made of a polished bronze . The purpose of the mirror was to project a beam of light from the reflection of the fire. It was said that ships could detect the light from the tower at night or the smoke from the fire during the day up to 60 kilometers away. Inside the building there were stairs that allowed people to climb to the beacon chamber. There was a statue of Poseidon , the God of sea on the top of the lighthouse. It was highest building of the world except Great Pyramid of Giza. Thus the most impressive scientific achievement of navigation was recognized to be one of the 7 wonders of the world. The lighthouse was finally destroyed by the earthquake in 12 century AD.